Art History Lab

Hidden Gems: Unearthing Ancient Artifacts and the Stories They Tell

History is replete with artifacts and relics that not only provide a glimpse into the lives of our ancestors but also shed light on their cultures, customs, and beliefs. From the pyramids of Egypt to the Mayan ruins of Central America, these artifacts have fascinated historians and archaeologists for centuries.

In this article, we examine two such artifacts: the Rosetta Stone and the Lydenburg Heads. We discuss their significance, their discovery, and what they can tell us about ancient civilizations.

Rosetta Stone (196 BC)

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian artifact that has proven to be an essential key to unlocking the mysteries of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The importance of this stone lies in the fact that it bears an inscription in three different scripts.

These scripts are hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek. The stone was discovered in 1799 by Napoleon’s army during their campaign in Egypt.

Importance and decipherment of the stone’s inscriptions

The discovery of the Rosetta Stone was considered a major archaeological discovery, as it contained a text that could be used to decipher the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Before the stone’s discovery, the hieroglyphics were considered a dead language that had no decipherable meaning.

However, with the help of the Greek inscription on the stone, French scholar Jean Francois Champollion was able to crack the code in 1822. Champollion’s decipherment of the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone unveiled a wealth of information about the ancient Egyptians.

The hieroglyphics contained on the stone shed light on their religious beliefs, daily life, and government.

Political context and linguistic breakthroughs from the stone

The Rosetta Stone was inscribed in the year 196 BC during the reign of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. The Greek inscription on the stone was a decree issued by the council of priests to honor Ptolemy V for his benevolence.

The inscription also contained instructions for the decree to be engraved in the hieroglyphics and the demotic script so that the message could reach a wider audience. The linguistic breakthroughs from the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone paved the way for the study of ancient Egyptian culture and language.

The hieroglyphic script now became a living language that could be studied and understood, and this led to further discoveries of Egyptian artifacts and relics.

Lydenburg Heads (400 AD to 500 AD)

The Lydenburg Heads are a collection of terracotta heads discovered in what is now South Africa. The heads were found in a burial site in the town of Lydenburg and date back to the period between 400 AD and 500 AD.

The Lydenburg Heads have generated a lot of interest among archaeologists and historians due to their unique style and purpose.

Discovery and significance of the terracotta heads

The discovery of the Lydenburg Heads in the 1950s was a significant archaeological breakthrough. The head’s terracotta material had helped to preserve them over the centuries, and they were found in excellent condition.

The Lydenburg Heads served as a form of burial ritual among the Bantu-speaking people who made them. These people believed that the head was the seat of the person’s spirit, and so the head was carefully preserved and buried with the rest of the body.

Ritual purposes and cultural representation in the heads

The Lydenburg Heads display a unique style of art that is typical of the Bantu-speaking people who made them. The heads have large, exaggerated features such as ears, eyes, and noses, which are thought to represent the different tribes’ unique cultural identity.

The intricate patterns carved into the head’s surface are believed to signify the spiritual significance of the head. The patterns are thought to symbolize the different tribes’ beliefs, customs, and traditions, making the Lydenburg Heads an essential artifact in the study of African culture.


In conclusion, the Rosetta Stone and Lydenburg Heads are prime examples of how artifacts can provide critical insights into ancient civilizations. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone led to a significant breakthrough in the study of Egyptian culture and language.

The decoding of the hieroglyphics on the stone has paved the way for further discoveries of Egyptian artifacts and relics. Similarly, the discovery of the Lydenburg Heads has provided historians and archaeologists with essential insights into the Bantu-speaking people’s culture, customs, and beliefs.

The Bantu-speaking people made these terracotta heads for spiritual and ceremonial purposes, and so the heads are imbued with a rich cultural significance that provides a glimpse into the past.The ancient world is full of fascinating artifacts and relics that offer a glimpse into the past. From the pyramids of Egypt to the ruins of Machu Picchu, these artifacts tell us about the cultures, customs, and beliefs of our ancestors.

In this article, we look at two such relics: the Caral Quipu and the Ur Ram. We examine their significance and how they contribute to our understanding of ancient civilizations.

Caral Quipu (c. 3000 BC)

The Caral Quipu is an ancient artifact dating back to the Caral-Supe civilization, the oldest civilization in the Americas.

The artifact is a knotted cord that served as a record-keeping device and a form of communication in the Andean region. Researchers have found that the quipu was used by the Caral-Supe civilization as early as 3000 BCE.

Caral-Supe civilization and its significance

The Caral-Supe civilization was one of the most advanced cultures of its time. Located in modern-day Peru, this civilization flourished between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE.

They had highly organized societies, advanced agricultural techniques, and impressive architectural structures such as pyramids. The discovery of the Caral Quipu has shed light on the Caral-Supe civilization’s advanced record-keeping techniques.

It is now evident that the quipu was used for a range of purposes from recording events to keeping track of agricultural or trade transactions. The quipu was also used to communicate through a network of trained specialists who were responsible for passing messages between different communities.

Importance of quipu as ancient writing

The Caral Quipu is just one example of quipus that were used by ancient Andean societies to record important events or for administrative purposes. The quipu was an intricate system of knots tied on a cord, and it functioned as a form of communication and record-keeping, similar to writing.

The Cordillera Blanca quipu, for instance, is believed to have been used for taxation purposes, with the knots representing specific amounts of goods or services. The quipu holds a significant place in Andean culture as one of the most important forms of writing.

The number and placement of knots on a cord conveyed information and messages to those who could decode them, similar to the way that writing conveys meaning. Ur Ram (c.

2500 BC)

The Ur Ram is an ancient artifact discovered in the ruins of the city of Ur in modern-day Iraq. The artifact is a statuette known as the Ram in a Thicket and is considered one of the most exceptional artifacts from the Sumerian civilization.

Ram in a Thicket as an advanced artifact

The Ram in a Thicket is an example of the advanced artistic skills of the Sumerians. The statuette is made of gold, silver, and lapis lazuli, a precious blue stone imported from Afghanistan.

The ram’s body is made of wood, covered with gold leaf, and trimmed with lapis lazuli tiles that depict the animal’s coat. The Ram in a Thicket is an exceptional artifact as it demonstrates the Sumerians’ skills in metalwork, woodworking, and the use of rare materials in their art.

The intricate details of the ram’s head and the stylized trees that sit on top of the wooden base show the Sumerians’ mastery in combining different materials and techniques.

Trade networks and materials used in the artifact

The Ram in a Thicket is a product of the advanced trade networks of the Sumerian civilization. The materials used to create the artifact, such as gold, silver, and lapis lazuli, were not found in the region but had to be imported from other parts of the world.

This suggests that the Sumerians had extensive trade relationships with other cultures and regions. The Sumerians traded in a range of goods, including precious metals, textiles, and agricultural products, and developed trade networks that extended beyond Mesopotamia.

They used their advanced irrigation and agricultural techniques to produce surpluses that they could trade with other cultures in the region.


In conclusion, the Caral Quipu and the Ur Ram provide a glimpse into the skills and techniques of ancient civilizations. The Caral Quipu demonstrates the Caral-Supe civilization’s advanced record-keeping techniques and the importance of the quipu as an ancient form of writing.

The Ur Ram, on the other hand, shows the Sumerians’ mastery of metalwork, woodworking, and their extensive trade networks that allowed them to access rare materials. These artifacts are a testament to the ingenuity and creativity of our ancestors and help us understand the cultures and customs that have shaped us into who we are today.Relics and artifacts serve as a technic to understand different periods, cultures, and beliefs.

Often, they come with mysteries or controversies that enchant researchers and historians alike. The ancient Phaistos Disc and Nebra Sky Disc are two enigmatic artifacts that continue to fascinate and perplex people to this day.

In this article, we will take an in-depth look at these two artifacts and their role in shedding light on ancient history.

Phaistos Disc (1850 BC – 1400 BC)

The Phaistos Disc is a small, circular clay tablet that was discovered on the Greek island of Crete in 1908. The artifact dates back between 1850 BC and 1400 BC and is covered on both sides with a series of pictographic symbols, arranged in a spiral pattern.

Mystery and attempts to decipher the disc

The Phaistos Disc is considered one of the most enigmatic artifacts thus far discovered. While the symbols on the disc are arranged in a pattern, it’s unclear what message they convey.

The disc’s authorship, language, and purpose remain unclear as well. Over the years, many attempts have been made to decipher the Phaistos Disc, but none have been successful.

Scholars have tried to associate the symbols with known languages like Linear A or Linear B scripts, but these attempts have been unconvincing. Thus, the content of the disc remains an enigma.

Printing press-like features of the disc

One of the unique features of the Phaistos Disc is its printing press-like appearance. Each symbol was stamped onto the soft clay using a pre-made seal, producing a near-perfect and uniform appearance for each symbol.

This suggests that the disc could have been mass-produced using a basic form of printing technology, thousands of years before modern printing techniques. The printing of the symbols on the disc using a seal suggests that the pottery press had been utilized during that age to mass-produce other everyday objects.

The seal used to create the symbols on the disc, therefore, may have been one of many varieties used at the time, with far greater significance beyond this small, intriguing artifact.

Nebra Sky Disc (1600 BC – 1000 BC)

The Nebra Sky Disc is a bronze artifact discovered in 1999 near the city of Nebra in Germany. It is a circular disc with a diameter of 32 centimeters, decorated with gold symbols that have been interpreted as the sun, the moon, and stars.

The artifact is thought to date back to between 1600 BC and 1000 BC.

Discovery and significance of the disc

The discovery of the Nebra Sky Disc was a significant archaeological breakthrough as it helped to shed light on the astronomical knowledge of ancient civilizations. The symbols on the disc are thought to represent important celestial objects such as the sun, the moon, and the Pleiades star cluster.

The Nebra Sky Disc is believed to have been used as a tool for tracking the celestial movements for agricultural purposes. The precise calculations of the disc suggest that its makers were highly advanced in astronomical knowledge and capable of complex astronomical observations.

Astronomical aspects and dating controversy

The astronomical significance of the Nebra Sky Disc has been the subject of considerable debate. Some scholars argue that the disc’s depiction of the stars represents the oldest known concrete representation of the cosmos.

In contrast, others believe that the artifact is merely a ceremonial object. Additionally, there is significant debate about the artifact’s age.

The methods used to determine the Nebra Sky Disc’s age have been challenged, with some researchers suggesting that it could be much younger or older than previously thought. However, most experts agree that the disc is from the Bronze Age and has significant astronomical significance.


In conclusion, the Phaistos Disc and the Nebra Sky Disc are exceptional ancient artifacts that still hold many secrets. The symbols on the Phaistos Disc continue to captivate the interest of scholars, who are working hard to decipher the disc’s meaning.

The Nebra Sky Disc has revealed significant astronomical knowledge of ancient cultures and sheds light on their methods of observing the celestial movements. These artifacts are a testament to the ingenuity and creativity of our past and encourage us to continue researching and uncovering the mysteries of ancient civilizations.Throughout history, various artifacts have captured our interest and intrigue, providing us with glimpses into the cultures and civilizations that preceded us.

The Mask of Agamemnon and the Olmec Colossal Heads are two such extraordinary artifacts. In this article, we delve into the discovery, controversy, craftsmanship, historical context, origin, interpretations, construction, and labor organization surrounding these ancient relics.

Mask of Agamemnon (1550 BC – 1500 BC)

The Mask of Agamemnon is a gold funeral mask that was discovered at the famed archaeological site of Mycenae in Greece in 1876. Believed to date back to the Late Bronze Age between 1550 BC and 1500 BC, the mask was found over the face of a buried individual, leading to its association with the mythical figure of Agamemnon.

Discovery and archaeological controversy

The discovery of the Mask of Agamemnon caused a sensation in the archaeological world. The mask’s stunning craftsmanship and association with a prominent figure from Greek mythology propelled it into the spotlight.

However, controversy soon erupted. Some scholars questioned the mask’s authenticity, suspecting it to be a modern forgery due to its exceptional level of craftsmanship.

However, subsequent research and analysis confirmed the mask’s age and authenticity. Nonetheless, debates on its origin and connection to Agamemnon continue to this day.

Advanced craftsmanship and historical context

Regardless of the controversies surrounding its origin, the Mask of Agamemnon stands as a masterpiece of ancient craftsmanship. The mask is made of thin gold sheets intricately hammered and shaped to create a lifelike representation of a human face.

The mask’s historical context is significant as it belongs to the Mycenaean civilization, which thrived during the Late Bronze Age. These people were skilled metalworkers, and the mask’s exceptional craftsmanship reflects their advanced metallurgical techniques and artistic sensibilities.

Moreover, the mask’s association with Agamemnon, if accurate, provides insight into the mythology and legends that formed the foundation of ancient Greek culture.

Olmec Colossal Heads (1500 BC – 400 BC)

The Olmec Colossal Heads are large stone sculptures discovered in various locations throughout modern-day Mexico. These colossal heads, ranging in height from 1.5 to 3.4 meters, are believed to have been created by the Olmec civilization, the earliest Mesoamerican civilization, which flourished from 1500 BC to 400 BC.

Origin and debated interpretations of the heads

The Olmec Colossal Heads are a source of fascination and mystery due to their origin and purpose. The heads were likely carved from large boulders found in the Tuxtla Mountains, and their transportation across long distances is an impressive feat.

Interpretations of the heads vary, with some scholars suggesting that they depict Olmec rulers while others propose that they represent deities or both. The intricate facial features and details on each head, including distinctive headdresses and facial expressions, make understanding their purpose and significance a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Construction and labor organization of the heads

The construction of the Olmec Colossal Heads showcases the exceptional skills and organization of the Olmec civilization. Creating such massive stone sculptures required careful planning, engineering expertise, and skilled artisans.

The transportation of the boulders and the carving of the colossal heads must have involved a significant labor force, demonstrating the Olmec’s ability to organize and coordinate collective efforts. The extensive manpower and resources required for the creation of the heads highlight the Olmec civilization’s advanced social and political structures.


The Mask of Agamemnon and the Olmec Colossal Heads epitomize the allure and complexity of ancient artifacts. The Mask of Agamemnon, with its advanced craftsmanship and disputed origins, offers glimpses into the ancient Mycenaean civilization and its connections to Greek mythology.

The Olmec Colossal Heads, with their imposing size and enigmatic representations, provide insights into the early Mesoamerican Olmec civilization and their societal structures. As these artifacts continue to captivate our imagination and inspire further research, they serve as reminders of the richness and diversity of our ancient past.The ancient world is a treasure trove of artifacts and sculptures that provide us with invaluable insights into the cultures and civilizations of the past.

The Nok Terracotta Sculptures and the Trundholm Sun Chariot are two remarkable examples of such artifacts. In this article, we will explore the geographical spread, importance, artistic features, symbolism, unusual features, and astronomical symbolism surrounding these captivating pieces.

Nok Terracotta Sculptures (1500 BC – 500 AD)

The Nok Terracotta Sculptures are a collection of ancient clay figurines that were discovered in what is now Nigeria. These unique sculptures date back from 1500 BC to 500 AD and are considered one of the earliest-known representations of human form in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Geographical spread and importance of the sculptures

The Nok Terracotta Sculptures were found in several locations across northern and central Nigeria, indicating a widespread cultural presence. This suggests that the Nok civilization, from which these sculptures originated, had a significant impact on the region.

The importance of the Nok Terracotta Sculptures lies in their role in shaping our understanding of Sub-Saharan Africa’s ancient history and artistic traditions. These sculptures offer valuable evidence of sophisticated artistic techniques and a rich cultural heritage that predates many well-known civilizations.

The Nok Terracotta Sculptures have provided researchers with clues about ancient African societies, their social structures, and their artistic expressions.

Artistic features and symbolism of the sculptures

The Nok Terracotta Sculptures are renowned for their artistic features and symbolism. The sculptures depict a wide range of human forms, including males, females, and animals.

Most notable is the attention to detail in the facial features, hairstyles, and body adornments, reflecting the Nok civilization’s artistic prowess. Symbolism is an important aspect of the Nok Terracotta Sculptures.

Some figures are adorned with elaborate jewelry, suggesting their association with status and power. Others exhibit scarification marks, which may indicate cultural or social significance.

The use of unique hairstyles, ranging from intricate braids to elaborate headpieces, may also convey specific meanings within Nok society. Trundholm Sun Chariot (c.

1400 BC)

The Trundholm Sun Chariot is a bronze artifact discovered in Denmark in 1902. This ancient sculpture, dating back to around 1400 BC, depicts a horse-drawn chariot with a mysterious figure standing in it, holding a circular object overhead.

Discovery and unusual features of the chariot

The discovery of the Trundholm Sun Chariot unveiled the incredible artistic skill of the Bronze Age cultures in northern Europe. The chariot is unusually small, measuring only 5.1 inches in length, and its intricate details showcase the superb craftsmanship of its creators.

One of the most intriguing features of the Trundholm Sun Chariot is the figure holding a circular object, often interpreted as a representation of the sun or a celestial body. The small stature of this figure and its positioning suggest a symbolic connection between the celestial sphere and human existence.

Astronomical symbolism and dating discrepancies

The Trundholm Sun Chariot’s astronomical symbolism has captivated scholars and sparked debate. The circular object held by the figure has been associated with the sun due to its resemblance to a golden disc.

Some interpret the sculpture as a depiction of a solar cult or ritual, representing the celestial journey of the sun. However, discrepancies in its dating have led to further discussions.

Debate surrounds whether the Trundholm Sun Chariot originated in the late Bronze Age or was created during the Early Iron Age, as its style contains elements from both periods. The uncertainty surrounding its dating adds a layer of complexity to its interpretation and cultural significance.


The Nok Terracotta Sculptures and the Trundholm Sun Chariot provide extraordinary glimpses into the artistic and cultural richness of ancient civilizations. The Nok Terracotta Sculptures reveal Africa’s diverse artistic heritage and its early contributions to the art world.

The Trundholm Sun Chariot, with its unusual features and astronomical symbolism, invites contemplation on the relationship between humans and the celestial realm. As we delve deeper into the stories and meanings behind these artifacts, we appreciate the creativity, ingenuity, and complexity of our ancient ancestors.Egyptian history has brought us boundless wonders, and among them, the Bust of Queen Nefertiti and the Mask of Tutankhamun stand as exquisite testaments to ancient Egypt’s grandeur.

These iconic artifacts have intrigued scholars and captivated the world with their historical controversies, cultural significance, artistic beauty, intricate craftsmanship, and restoration efforts. In this article, we delve into the captivating stories behind these remarkable treasures.

Bust of Queen Nefertiti (1345 BC)

The Bust of Queen Nefertiti is an ancient Egyptian sculpture discovered in 1912 by German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt. This exquisite limestone bust is believed to depict Queen Nefertiti, the wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten, a powerful ruler of Egypt during the 14th century BC.

Discovery and historical controversies

The discovery of the Bust of Queen Nefertiti sparked great excitement among the archaeological community. However, controversies soon followed.

One of the ongoing debates revolves around the ownership and rightful location of the bust, as it currently resides in the Neues Museum in Berlin, Germany. Additionally, the bust’s portrayal of Queen Nefertiti has faced scrutiny.

Some scholars argue that the bust’s idealized beauty may have been exaggerated in accordance with Egyptian artistic conventions, while others believe it accurately represents the queen’s features. The controversies surrounding the discovery and portrayal of the bust continue to fuel discussions and interpretations.

Cultural significance and artistic beauty of the bust

The Bust of Queen Nefertiti holds immense cultural significance. It is revered as an iconic representation of ancient Egyptian artistry and the beauty standards of the era.

The meticulous craftsmanship and attention to detail displayed in the sculpture have left a lasting impact on the art world. The beauty of the Bust of Queen Nefertiti is evident in its smooth facial contours, the delicate carving of the eyes, and the subtle nuances in the lips and cheeks.

The bust embodies the epitome of elegance and grace, reflecting the aesthetic ideals of the Amarna period in Egypt’s history.

Mask of Tutankhamun (1323 BC)

The Mask of Tutankhamun is one of the most famous artifacts from ancient Egypt. This golden funerary mask was discovered in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter in the tomb of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun, who reigned during the 14th century BC.

Discovery and historical context of the mask

The discovery of the Mask of Tutankhamun marked a historic moment in the realm of archaeology. Howard Carter’s excavation unearthed the opulent treasures of Tutankhamun’s tomb, providing unprecedented insights into the wealth and opulence of ancient Egyptian royalty.

The mask itself served as a protective covering for the pharaoh’s mummy. It is widely believed to represent King Tutankhamun’s idealized features, emphasizing cultural and religious symbolism.

The discovery of the mask not only shed light on Tutankhamun’s reign but also offered a valuable glimpse into the artistic and funerary practices of ancient Egypt.

Intricate craftsmanship and restoration efforts

The Mask of Tutankhamun is a masterpiece of intricate craftsmanship. It is made of solid gold and adorned with precious stones, such as lapis lazuli and obsidian.

The mask’s realistic facial features, the delicate inlays, and the exquisite details exemplify the advanced goldsmithing and metalworking skills of ancient Egypt. Over time, the mask suffered damage and required restoration.

The restoration efforts aimed to preserve the mask’s structural integrity and aesthetic appeal. The delicate process involved meticulous cleaning, repairing, and reattaching the mask’s various components and inlays.


The Bust of Queen Nefertiti and the Mask of Tutankhamun epitomize the grandeur and artistry of ancient Egypt. The Bust of Queen Nefertiti continues to inspire debates and interpretations, offering a glimpse into the controversies that surround ancient artifacts.

Meanwhile, the Mask of Tutankhamun delights with its intricate craftsmanship and provides a window into the cultural and historical context of ancient Egyptian royalty. These remarkable artifacts serve as enduring testaments to the ancient Egyptians’ artistic mastery and continue to fascinate and inspire awe in people worldwide.History is full of intriguing artifacts that offer valuable insights into the cultures and societies of the past.

The Babylonian Map of the World and the Messapian Baby Bottle are two such artifacts that provide glimpses into ancient civilizations and their practices. In this article, we explore the importance, content, cultural insights, historical insights, significance, use, and implications of these stunning relics.

Babylonian Map of the World (900 BC – 700 BC)

The Babylonian Map of the World is an ancient clay tablet discovered in the late 19th century in Mesopotamia, a region that encompasses present-day Iraq. This remarkable artifact, dating back to the 9th or 8th century BC, depicts the known world from a Babylonian perspective.

Importance and content of the ancient map

The Babylonian Map of the World holds great importance as one of the oldest surviving maps known to humanity. It provides insights into the Babylonians’ understanding of geography, their perception of the world, and their cosmological beliefs.

The map features several concentric circles, representing different elements of the world. The innermost circle represents the city of Babylon, while the outer circles depict various regions, rivers, mountains, and bodies of water.

Each region is labeled, allowing for an understanding of the Babylonians’ knowledge of the surrounding areas.

Cultural and historical insights from the map

The Babylonian Map of the World offers compelling cultural and historical insights. Not only does it reveal the Babylonians’ geographical knowledge, but it also provides information about their religious beliefs.

The map incorporates celestial symbols and religious motifs, reflecting their cosmological worldview. Moreover, the map reflects the Babylonians’ level of advancement in astronomy and mathematics.

The inclusion of celestial bodies and the precise measurements of distances indicate their astronomical prowess and the sophisticated methods they used to calculate and record these details.

Messapian Baby Bottle (400 BC – 300 BC)

The Messapian Baby Bottle is a unique terracotta object that was predominantly used for infant feeding. These baby bottles were discovered in the Messapian region of ancient Italy, home to the indigenous Messapian people.

Significance and use of the terracotta bottle

The Messapian Baby Bottle is of great significance in understanding ancient infant care practices. The shape and design of the bottle were intended to facilitate easy feeding for infants.

The elongated spout allowed for controlled flow, enabling caretakers to regulate the pace of feeding. The bottles also provide insight into the materials and craftsmanship of ancient times.

These terracotta vessels were often decorated with intricate designs and ornamental elements, reflecting the artistic sensibilities of the Messapian culture.

Implications for understanding Messapian culture and burial practices

The discovery of the Messapian Baby Bottles gives us valuable insights into the culture and burial practices of the Messapian people. These bottles were found in tombs, indicating that they held cultural significance beyond their practical use.

They likely played a role in burial rituals and were intentionally placed alongside the deceased as symbols of continuity or protection in the afterlife. The inclusion of the Messapian Baby Bottles in burial contexts suggests the importance of familial and ancestral connections within the Messapian culture.

It highlights the value placed on the care and nurturing of infants and children even in death, shedding light on the socia

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