Art History Lab

Journey Through Time and Beauty: Exploring the Majesty of Famous Cathedrals

Introduction to Famous Cathedrals

Cathedrals have always been an integral part of religious history, serving as prominent landmarks and recognizable monuments in their respective regions. These awe-inspiring structures hold a significant place in the hearts of both believers and non-believers, owing to their stunning architecture and magnificent paintings.

For centuries, cathedrals have been a symbol of the religious and cultural pride of the communities living in and around them. In this article, we delve into the reasons why cathedrals hold such an important place in our history and why they continue to enthrall visitors from around the world.

Significance and Recognition of Cathedrals

Famous cathedrals like Notre-Dame in Paris, St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, and St. Paul’s Cathedral in London have become global icons. These structures hold cultural and architectural significance beyond any religious affiliation or symbolism.

Today, they attract millions of visitors every year, who come to marvel at their beauty and soak in their rich history. Recognition of these iconic structures strengthens collective memory of the past and serves as a reminder of our history.

The intricate details of architecture and design which are unique to every cathedral offer visitors an opportunity to appreciate the skill and craftmanship of the builders who constructed these magnificent structures.

Features of Beautiful Cathedrals

Beautiful cathedrals often have a unique combination of architectural styles, reflecting changing design trends across centuries. Gothic-style cathedrals, like Notre-Dame in Paris, are characterized by the striking verticality of their towers and spires, while Romanesque-style cathedrals like New Cathedral of Salamanca in Spain feature sturdy columns, round arches and massive vaulted roofs.

Stunning architecture is not the only feature that sets cathedrals apart; they are also renowned for their artistic masterpieces. These masterpieces include magnificent paintings, intricate sculptures, and beautiful stained-glass windows that bring life to these cathedrals.

The stained-glass windows, in particular, are renowned for their intricate details and the mesmerizing play of light.

Historical and Architectural Immersion

There is no better way to immerse oneself in the history and architecture of a city or region than by visiting its beautiful cathedrals. These structures can take you back through time – to the origins of Christianity and Islam, to important historical events and to times of war and peace.

The awe-inspiring architecture of cathedrals provides an opportunity to experience firsthand the skill and craftsmanship of the builders who constructed them. The precision and elegance of the design details, the intricacies of the sculpture and the brilliance of the stained-glass windows are all awe-inspiring.

Maintenance and Preservation of Ancient Cathedrals

The continuous use of cathedrals over time, for religious services and other communal gatherings, has the potential to erode and damage their interiors and facades. However, cathedrals built from ancient materials and technologies, such as limestone and sandstone, have stood the test of time.

This is a testament to the durability of the materials as well as to the care taken in maintaining them. It is important to ensure regular use and maintenance of cathedrals to preserve their rich history and cultural significance for future generations.

This involves proper cleaning and restoration of the intricate details of the architecture and design, as well as the foundations of the structure. In many cases, communities have come together to show support and maintain these glorious structures through fundraising and volunteer-led initiatives.

Conclusion

In conclusion, cathedrals remain significant icons of our past, culture, and architecture, and for those who are yet to experience the beauty and awe these structures hold, it is a journey worth taking. Explore the intricacies of the stained-glass windows, the beauty of the sculptures and the majesty of the architecture of these magnificent cathedrals.

Through travel, we can experience history, culture, and architecture firsthand and the cathedrals provide a perfect avenue to do so. Mezquita of Cordoba (Cordoba, Spain)

The Mezquita of Cordoba, also known as the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, is an architectural marvel located in the heart of the Andalusian city of Cordoba, Spain.

The structure is renowned for its striking mix of Islamic, Renaissance and Gothic architecture, and stands out as one of the most important examples of Moorish architecture in the world.

Description and Historical Background

The Mezquita of Cordoba was initially constructed in the 8th century as a mosque under the Umayyad Dynasty. The mosque was built over time, with each new caliphate adding to the original design.

The result was a magnificent structure featuring over 850 columns, most of which were recycled from Roman and Visigothic structures. In the 13th century, following the Reconquista by the Christian kingdoms of Spain, the mosque was converted into a church, and a Renaissance cathedral nave was built inside, creating a unique and unconventional architectural combination.

Today, the Mezquita of Cordoba continues to captivate visitors from all over the world, with its stunning juxtaposition of Islamic and Christian architecture, visible in its original horseshoe arches, domes and geometric designs alongside the Renaissance cathedral nave.

Architectural Features and Highlights

The Mezquita of Cordoba features an impressive array of architectural and design elements that are a testament to the skill of the Umayyad builders and the successive generations who contributed to the structure. One of the most striking features of the Mezquita is the sinuous rows of horseshoe arches, which create a sense of fluidity as one walks through the mosque.

The arches are supported by a forest of over 850 columns, which are arranged in a unique, highly complex pattern of double rows. The intricate geometric and floral patterns that adorn the mosque’s arches and walls are breathtaking in their precision and beauty.

The colors, which were once brighter and more vibrant, have today faded, but still retain a sense of majesty and elegance. The Mezquita of Cordoba also contains a vast array of ornamental materials, ranging from intricate mosaics and marble sculptures to woodcarvings and glazed tilework that reflect the Islamic influence.

The cathedral nave, on the other hand, boasts a magnificent retablo, or reredos, which was carved in Italy between 1547 and 1568 by Alonso Berruguete. San Marco Basilica (Venice, Italy)

The San Marco Basilica is a magnificent church located in the heart of Venice, Italy.

The structure is an architectural and artistic treasure trove, featuring a stunning mix of Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, and Islamic architectural features and masterpieces of medieval and Renaissance art.

Building History and Influences

The San Marco Basilica was initially constructed in the 9th century at the site where Mark, the evangelist, was martyred and buried. The basilica’s stunning architecture reflects the historical influence of the many cultures that left their mark on Venice.

The structure was originally designed in the Byzantine style, with five domes, an opulent entrance, and intricately designed arches. Over the centuries, various changes were made, including the addition of Romanesque and Islamic elements to reflect Venice’s cultural and commercial ties to the Byzantine and Islamic worlds.

During the 14th and 15th centuries, the basilica underwent a significant transformation, with the addition of Gothic features, including pointed arches, stained glass windows, and intricate sculptures.

Artistic and Cultural Significance

The San Marco Basilica is a treasure trove of priceless stones, marbles, and looted artifacts that reflect the wealth and prosperity of Venice. The basilica’s gold-ground mosaics, which cover the walls and ceilings, are a testament to the skill and artistry of the mosaicists who created them.

These mosaics, which date back to the 12th and 13th centuries, depict a wide range of religious and secular themes, and reflect both Byzantine and Western influences. The basilica also houses a vast array of masterpieces of medieval and Renaissance art, including sculptures, reliefs, and frescoes.

Two celebrated examples are the Tetrarchs – a set of four figures that served as a reminder of the unity of the Empire – and the Pala d’Oro, which is a stunning gold and enamel altarpiece that was created over the course of several centuries. In conclusion, the San Marco Basilica and the Mezquita of Cordoba stand out as two of Europe’s most impressive sacred structures.

Their unique architectural features, historical background, and cultural significance continue to inspire and captivate visitors from all over the world. These timeless monuments to human creativity stand as a testament to the enduring power of faith, art, and architecture to shape and transform the world around us.

St. Stephen’s Cathedral (Vienna, Austria)

St. Stephen’s Cathedral, also known as Stephansdom, is a stunning example of Romanesque architecture located in the heart of Vienna, Austria. The towering tower and limestone walls have made it an iconic landmark and has stood the test of time through the centuries.

Construction and Architectural Style

The construction of St. Stephen’s Cathedral began in the 12th century, under the guidance of the famous architect Anton Pilgram. However, this is only a small part of its history, as the design has continuously been altered and expanded during the years of the Habsburg empire.

One of the most notable aspects of the cathedral’s architecture is its towering tower, which reaches a height of 136 meters. The tower is adorned with ornate decorations and a brightly-colored roof, which stands in contrast to the cathedral’s otherwise muted palette.

The exterior of the cathedral is also notable for its limestone walls, which give the structure its distinct color and texture. The walls are adorned with beautiful carvings and sculptures, including the famous coat of arms of the Habsburg dynasty.

The Cathedral’s architectural style has been influenced by Romanesque style cathedrals and churches of the Rhineland and northern Italy.

Interior and Historical Significance

The interior of St. Stephen’s Cathedral is just as impressive as the exterior, with ornate catacombs and crypts that are home to the remains of significant Habsburg figures. The cathedral also houses several precious altars, including one which is made from a single piece of stone and stands at an impressive six meters in height.

One of the most notable features of the cathedral’s interior is its royal mausoleum. This mausoleum is home to the remains of several Habsburg emperors and their families, including the remains of empress Maria Theresa, who played a significant role in Austria’s history during the late 18th-century.

Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France)

Chartres Cathedral is a beautiful example of French Gothic architecture located in the city of Chartres, France. The cathedral’s remarkably well-preserved three facades and stunning stained-glass windows have made it a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the most visited cathedrals in France.

Preservation of Original Elements

Chartres Cathedral retains many of its original elements that date back to the 12th century. The cathedral’s impressive three facades, which feature intricate carvings and elaborate portals, are particularly well-preserved.

The interiors of the cathedral are equally impressive, with soaring ceilings and stunning stained-glass windows, which are some of the finest examples of medieval stained-glass art. These intricate windows reflect the medieval practice of using stained-glass windows as educational tools to teach common people about biblical stories and Christ’s life.

The stunning flying buttresses that support the cathedral’s walls are another notable feature of Chartres Cathedral’s architecture. These were originally added to the cathedral in the 13th century and are a testament to the skill of the medieval builders who constructed this magnificent monument.

Religious and Artistic Significance

Chartres Cathedral has a special religious significance as it is believed to house the veil that Mary wore at the time of the Christ’s birth. The veil is known as the Sancta Camisa or Holy Tunic and is displayed every year during the Cathedral’s Feast of the Assumption in August.

The sculptures and carvings on the cathedral’s porticos and arches are significant, as they depict scenes from the Old and New Testaments and Catholic teachings. These sculptures and carvings represent a pioneering move away from the earlier Romanesque style.

In addition to the religious significance of the cathedral, Chartres has always been an important center of artistic activity. It has been home to a variety of important artistic and intellectual figures, including philosophers and writers, as well as to priceless and historical graves and artifacts.

Conclusion

St. Stephen’s Cathedral and Chartres Cathedral stand out as two of the most impressive and historically significant monuments in Europe. These architectural masterpieces offer important insights into the cultural and artistic achievements of the past.

The intricate details in their designs and structures, their well-preserved elements, and their significance to religion and politics make them a must-visit destination for cultural enthusiasts and history lovers all around the world. St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic)

St. Vitus Cathedral, located in the heart of Prague, Czech Republic, is a stunning example of Gothic architecture.

The cathedral’s construction and architectural development spanned several centuries and was led by renowned architect Peter Parler. With its towering spires, chancel, circle of chapels, and the iconic South Tower, St. Vitus Cathedral is a true masterpiece.

Construction and Architectural Development

The construction of St. Vitus Cathedral began in the 14th century under the patronage of Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor. It continued for several centuries and experienced multiple phases of architectural development, adding to its grandeur.

Peter Parler, the esteemed architect, took charge of the construction in the 14th century and made significant contributions to the overall design of the cathedral. One of the most notable features is the chancel, which houses the main altar and is surrounded by a magnificent ambulatory.

The circle of chapels, located on the southern side of the cathedral, is a unique architectural feature. This circular arrangement of chapels provides a beautiful backdrop for the cathedral’s interior and adds both aesthetic and structural depth to the overall design.

The South Tower, which rises to a height of 99 meters, is an iconic symbol of the cathedral. It offers breathtaking panoramic views of Prague and is a testament to the architectural skill and engineering prowess of Peter Parler and his team.

Interior Features and Notable Burials

The interior of St. Vitus Cathedral is equally impressive, showcasing a range of features that make it a must-visit destination for travelers and history enthusiasts alike. The bronze entrance, adorned with intricate details and biblical scenes, serves as a magnificent gateway to the wonders that lie inside.

The cathedral is home to the Royal Mausoleum, which contains the final resting place of numerous Czech monarchs, as well as archbishops and cardinals. The mausoleum is adorned with stunning sculptures and carvings that pay homage to the deceased and reflect the artistic prowess of the craftsmen who created them.

St. Vitus Cathedral features numerous Gothic chapels that house precious relics and altars. These chapels, dedicated to saints and important figures in Czech history, are adorned with stained-glass windows that create a mesmerizing play of light and color in the sacred space.

The cathedral’s vibrant history is evident in the significant burials that have taken place within its walls. From Charles IV, the patron of the cathedral, to St. John Nepomuk, the Czech martyr, St. Vitus Cathedral houses the tombs of important figures who have shaped the region’s history.

Santa Maria del Fiore (Florence, Italy)

Santa Maria del Fiore, also known as the Florence Cathedral, is a magnificent architectural gem located in the heart of Florence, Italy. Designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, the cathedral is a masterpiece of Gothic Revival architecture, characterized by its intricate marble facades, rose windows, and iconic red-tiled dome.

Completion and Exterior Design

The construction of Santa Maria del Fiore began in 1296 and continued for over 140 years before its completion in 1436. Filippo Brunelleschi’s brilliant architectural design played a pivotal role in the completion of the cathedral’s iconic dome, which is often considered one of the greatest engineering feats of the Renaissance.

The exterior of the cathedral is a visual feast, with its elaborate marble facades showcasing intricate details, sculptures, and reliefs that depict biblical scenes and saints. The rose windows, particularly the one on the west facade, are a true marvel, with their delicate tracery patterns and vibrant stained glass.

The cathedral’s red-tiled dome is a symbol of Florence and dominates the city skyline. Its striking shape and color create an unforgettable sight.

The dome, designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, revolutionized the construction of large-scale domes and became an architectural inspiration for future generations.

Interior Artworks and Tombs

Step inside Santa Maria del Fiore, and you are greeted by an interior as grand as its exterior. The lavish facade gives way to a stunning array of exquisite artworks, including frescoes, precious altars, and intricate sculptures.

The cathedral’s interior is adorned with a wealth of artistic treasures. The magnificent dome, decorated with a frescoed ceiling depicting the Last Judgment, is a prime example of the artistic brilliance of the Renaissance period.

The opulent tombs within the cathedral are the final resting places of notable figures, including several Medici family members, important religious leaders, and renowned artists. These tombs, adorned with sculptures and reliefs, serve as a testament to the wealth and cultural significance of the Medici family and the enduring impact of the Renaissance in Florence.

In addition to the magnificent dome and tombs, Santa Maria del Fiore boasts significant paintings and sculptures created by renowned artists such as Donatello, Michelangelo, and Ghiberti. These masterpieces, including Michelangelo’s famous Piet, add to the cathedral’s allure and exemplify the artistic legacy of the Renaissance in Florence.

In conclusion, St. Vitus Cathedral and Santa Maria del Fiore are architectural marvels that continue to captivate visitors with their remarkable designs, rich histories, and artistic treasures. The intricate details, magnificent facades, and breathtaking interiors of these cathedrals are a testament to human creativity and the enduring power of architectural and artistic achievements.

Saint John’s Co-Cathedral (Valletta, Malta)

Saint John’s Co-Cathedral, situated in the heart of Valletta, Malta, is a stunning architectural masterpiece that showcases the grandeur of Baroque architecture. Designed by renowned architect Girolamo Cassar, this co-cathedral holds immense historical significance as the Conventual Church of Saint John, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, and served as the ceremonial church of the Knights of Malta.

Construction and Architectural Style

The construction of Saint John’s Co-Cathedral began in the 16th century under the patronage of the Knights of Malta, a chivalric order established to protect Christian pilgrims and provide medical aid. Completed in 1577, the co-cathedral epitomizes the opulence and grandeur of Baroque architecture.

Girolamo Cassar, a prominent Italian architect, was responsible for the design of the co-cathedral. The exterior facade of the building exhibits intricate stone carvings, giving it a distinct and ornate appearance.

The facade also features two imposing bell towers that contribute to its majestic allure. The interior of the co-cathedral is a true testament to the splendor of Baroque style.

The nave is adorned with magnificent gold decorations and gilded stucco, creating a rich and lavish ambiance. The co-cathedral’s design incorporates elements of both Gothic and Baroque architecture, resulting in a unique blend of styles.

Interior Decorations and Treasures

Step inside Saint John’s Co-Cathedral, and you will be greeted by an interior that boasts an abundance of treasures and religious artworks. The marble tombstones that cover the cathedral floor are intricately carved and serve as a homage to the knights and dignitaries buried within the co-cathedral.

The co-cathedral is renowned for its collection of priceless religious artworks. Paintings by renowned artists such as Caravaggio, depicting scenes from the life of Saint John the Baptist, grace the co-cathedral’s walls.

These captivating artworks feature Caravaggio’s signature use of light and shadow, creating a sense of drama and depth. The Baroque style is prominently showcased in the co-cathedral’s intricate sculptures and altarpieces.

These beautiful sculptures, created by talented artists of the time, evoke a sense of religious devotion and reverence. The ornate chapels dedicated to different languages and nationalities within the Order of the Knights of Malta also boast exquisite architectural details and artistic treasures.

The co-cathedral’s collection of sacred vestments and liturgical objects, some of which were donated as endowments or through inheritances by notable individuals, further add to its historical and artistic significance. These precious artifacts serve as tangible links to the rich cultural and religious heritage of the Maltese islands.

St. Paul’s Cathedral (London, England)

St. Paul’s Cathedral, situated in the heart of London, England, is a beacon of architectural brilliance and a symbol of national identity. Designed by renowned architect Sir Christopher Wren, the cathedral stands as an iconic masterpiece of Renaissance and Baroque architecture.

Architectural Design and Inspiration

The architectural design of St. Paul’s Cathedral was heavily influenced by the Renaissance architecture of Italy, particularly St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Christopher Wren, the brilliant architect behind the cathedral’s design, sought to create a structure that would rival the grandeur of its Italian counterparts.

The magnificent Baroque front of St. Paul’s Cathedral is adorned with a stunning facade that features intricate stone carvings and detailed sculptures. The use of Corinthian columns and ornate detailing adds to the grandeur of the cathedral, capturing the essence of the Baroque period.

One of the most distinctive features of St. Paul’s Cathedral is its famous dome. The dome’s design was influenced by Michelangelo’s dome in St. Peter’s Basilica, although Wren adapted the design to suit the English context.

The dome, along with its famous golden cross, has become an iconic symbol of London.

Interior Features and Prominent Figures

Stepping inside St. Paul’s Cathedral, visitors are greeted by an interior that is equally impressive as its exterior. The cathedral boasts a grandeur that epitomizes the opulence of the Baroque style.

The lavish interior features marble flooring, intricate stone carvings, and ornate plasterwork, creating a sense of awe and reverence. The cathedral is home to opulent tombs and sarcophagi that honor prominent figures from British history.

Admirals, generals, and distinguished individuals who made significant contributions to society are laid to rest within St. Paul’s Cathedral. The tombs, adorned with captivating sculptures and inscriptions, provide a tangible connection to the rich heritage of the nation.

The interior of St. Paul’s Cathedral also houses a vast collection of paintings and sculptures. The cathedral’s walls are adorned with majestic artworks that depict religious scenes and important moments in English history.

These captivating paintings and sculptures serve as a testament to the artistic legacy and cultural significance of the cathedral. St. Paul’s Cathedral has played a significant role throughout history, hosting numerous important events, including royal weddings and state funerals.

It serves as a spiritual and cultural hub, attracting visitors from around the world who come to marvel at its architectural splendor and reflect on its historical importance. In conclusion, both Saint John’s Co-Cathedral and St. Paul’s Cathedral stand as architectural marvels, displaying the grandeur and artistic brilliance of the Baroque period.

These sacred structures continue to inspire visitors with their magnificent design, rich history, and treasured artworks. They are not only places of worship but also repositories of cultural and artistic treasures, representing the enduring legacies of faith and human achievement.

St. Patrick’s Cathedral (Manhattan, New York)

St. Patrick’s Cathedral, located in Manhattan, New York, is a testament to the democratic spirit and generous donations of the Irish immigrant community in the 19th century. Its construction was driven by the desire to promote religious equality and provide a place of worship for Catholics in a predominantly Protestant city.

Historical Background and Construction

The historical background of St. Patrick’s Cathedral is intertwined with the history of Irish immigration to the United States. During the 19th century, a large wave of Irish immigrants arrived in New York City, facing discrimination and hostility.

The construction of St. Patrick’s Cathedral became a symbol of resilience and a statement of the Irish community’s desire for religious equality. In 1850, Archbishop John Hughes laid the foundation stone for the cathedral, and construction began in earnest.

The doors of the cathedral were finally opened to the public in 1879, after nearly three decades of labor and dedication. The cathedral’s iconic Neo-Gothic design, inspired by European cathedrals, encompassed the hopes and aspirations of the Irish-American community.

Unique Features and Cultural Significance

St. Patrick’s Cathedral is not only a place of worship but also an architectural masterpiece and cultural landmark. The opulent interior of the cathedral embodies the grandeur of the Gothic Revival style.

The high vaulted ceilings, intricate woodwork, and ornate stained-glass windows create an atmosphere of reverence and beauty. The cathedral is home to a remarkable collection of religious art.

Statues of angels and various religious figures adorn the building, evoking a sense of spirituality and divine presence. These artworks, crafted by renowned artists, serve as a visual expression of faith and devotion.

St. Patrick’s Cathedral continues to play a significant role in the cultural and social fabric of New York City. It is a place where ongoing dialogue between the past, present, and future takes place.

The cathedral hosts numerous religious services, concerts, and events that bring together diverse communities, fostering understanding, and fostering a sense of unity. Cologne Cathedral (Cologne, Germany)

Cologne Cathedral, situated in Cologne, Germany, is an iconic landmark that stands as a testament to the city’s rich religious history and architectural prowess.

With its unparalleled stature and the relics of the Three Wise Men stored within, the cathedral has a profound religious significance and has become a symbol of the city.

Iconic Landmark and Religious Significance

Cologne Cathedral’s construction began in 1248 following the decision to house the relics of the Three Wise Men, which were brought from Milan. The cathedral’s towering spires, reaching a height of 157 meters, make it the second tallest church in Germany and a prominent feature on the Cologne skyline.

The cathedral’s religious significance is tied to its role as the guardian of the relics of the Three Wise Men. Pilgrims from around the world visit Cologne Cathedral to pay homage to these holy relics and seek spiritual guidance.

The cathedral has become an important destination for religious pilgrimages and a place of prayer and reflection. Cologne Cathedral has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, acknowledging its universal cultural value.

The cathedral’s stunning Gothic architecture, with its intricate stone carvings, flying buttresses, and towering spires, captivates visitors and showcases the extraordinary skill and craftsmanship of the medieval builders, particularly Master Gerhard.

Architectural Design and Features

Cologne Cathedral’s architectural design and features exemplify the pinnacle of Gothic architecture. Master Gerhard’s vision was to create a structure that would awe and inspire, serving as a testament to human achievement and devotion.

The cathedral’s harmonious proportions, intricate details, and soaring spires make it a true masterpiece. The stained-glass windows within the cathedral are breathtaking works of art.

These exquisite windows, created by various artists throughout the centuries, illuminate the interior with a kaleidoscope of colors, depicting scenes from biblical stories and the lives of the saints. They serve as a source of inspiration and contemplation for visitors from all walks of life.

Cologne Cathedral boasts the largest climbing wall in the world, integrated into its southwestern tower. Known as the Klner Domwand, this unique feature offers visitors an exhilarating opportunity to experience the grandeur of the cathedral from a different perspective, while also providing a physical challenge and adventure.

In conclusion, St. Patrick’s Cathedral and Cologne Cathedral are architectural and religious treasures that captivate visitors with their grandeur, rich histories, and cultural significance. St. Patrick’s Cathedral stands as a testament to the resilience of an immigrant community and serves as a symbol of religious equality, while Cologne Cathedral is a magnificent Gothic masterpiece that continues to inspire awe and reverence.

These cathedrals exemplify the enduring power of faith and the extraordinary achievements of human creativity and dedication. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Sofia, Bulgaria)

The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, located in Sofia, Bulgaria, is a magnificent architectural gem that showcases the grandeur of the Neo-Byzantine style.

Standing as one of the largest Orthodox cathedrals in the world, this cathedral’s Baroque front and striking spires leave a lasting impression on visitors.

Architectural Style and Size

Popular Posts