Overview of Victorian Paintings
From the mid-19th century to the turn of the 20th century, the Victorians left their mark on the world of art. The paintings of the Victorian era were marked by mysticism, fantasy, romanticism, and a preoccupation with Victorian culture and social ideals.
This time period was marked by significant social, industrial, and political change in Great Britain, which shaped the art of the time. In this article, we will take a closer look at Victorian paintings, their defining characteristics, and the various influences that shaped them.
Definition and Period of Victorian Art
Victorian art is the name given to the art produced in Great Britain during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). This period was a time of great industrial development, social change, and political upheaval.
As such, Victorian art reflects the attitudes and values of the time. The art produced during this era was marked by a fascination with science, technology, and progress, as well as a sense of nostalgia for the past.
Characteristics and Themes of Victorian Art
Victorian paintings often depicted fantastical scenes or subjects that were taken from literature or mythology. Many of these paintings were marked by a sense of mysticism and symbolism, reflecting the Victorians’ fascination with the supernatural.
Common themes in Victorian art included Christian beliefs, Fairies, Shakespeare’s plays, and Arthurian Legends.
The Victorians also had a love for realism in their paintings, and often sought to accurately depict their subject matter.
However, Victorian painters also frequently used romanticism as a means of exploring the more fantastical aspects of human experience. Victorian art was also highly symbolic, as painters sought to convey deeper meanings through the use of imagery and subject matter.
Influences on Victorian Paintings
The paintings of the Victorian era were influenced by a number of different factors, including the work of Joshua Reynolds and the Italian Renaissance, as well as the emergence of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. In the 18th century, Joshua Reynolds was one of the most influential artists in Great Britain, serving as the first president of the Royal Academy of Art.
Reynolds was known for his idealized portraits of nobility, as well as his historical and military scenes. His work had a significant impact on the development of British art, influencing the work of subsequent generations of painters.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood emerged in the mid-19th century and sought to challenge the conventional methods of painting that had been established in the Renaissance. The Pre-Raphaelites were interested in naturalism and accuracy, and often portrayed subjects from literature, mythology, and nature.
In addition to their attention to detail, the Pre-Raphaelites were also known for their use of symbolism, which became a hallmark of Victorian art.
In conclusion, Victorian paintings were marked by a fascination with mysticism, fantasy, and romanticism, as well as a desire to portray subject matter accurately and with attention to detail. These paintings were shaped by a number of different influences, including the work of Joshua Reynolds and the emergence of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Despite the passing of time, Victorian art remains a significant part of our cultural heritage and continues to inspire artists to this day.
Famous Victorian Paintings
The Victorian era is known for producing some of the world’s most iconic and enduring works of art. From portraits of high society to scenes from literature and mythology, Victorian paintings captured the imagination of their viewers and remain beloved to this day.
In this article, we will explore ten famous Victorian paintings and the stories behind them. “Christ in the House of His Parents” by John Everett Millais
“Christ in the House of His Parents” was painted by John Everett Millais in 1850, and is considered to be one of the most controversial paintings of the Victorian era.
The painting depicts the Holy family in a carpenter’s shop, with Jesus as a child holding a nail as his mother Mary looks on. The painting was criticized for its gritty, realistic portrayal of the Holy family, and for its inclusion of a dead bird on the shop floor.
Despite the controversy, the painting is now considered to be a masterpiece of Victorian art. “Ophelia” by John Everett Millais
“Ophelia” is another famous painting by John Everett Millais, completed in 1852.
The painting depicts the tragic character of Ophelia from Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet”, who drowned herself in a river after being spurned by her lover. The painting is known for its beautiful and detailed depiction of nature, as well as its haunting portrayal of Ophelia in the moments before her death.
“The Scapegoat” by William Holman Hunt
“The Scapegoat” was painted by William Holman Hunt in 1854-55, and depicts a goat carrying a red cloth into the desert, as described in the Book of Leviticus in the Bible. The painting is a powerful allegory for sin and guilt, and has been interpreted as a critique of the Victorian class system.
The painting is also notable for its use of vibrant colors and intricate details, making it a stunning example of Victorian art. “Proserpine” by Dante Gabriel Rossetti
“Proserpine” was painted by Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1874, and depicts the Greek goddess Proserpine in the Underworld after being abducted by Pluto, the god of the Underworld.
The painting is known for its lush colors, intricate details, and its representation of the Pre-Raphaelite style. The painting is also notable for its depiction of Proserpine holding a pomegranate, which became a symbol of marriage and memory in Victorian literature.
“The Lady of Shalott” by John William Waterhouse
“The Lady of Shalott” is a famous painting by John William Waterhouse, completed in 1888. The painting is based on a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, and depicts the cursed Lady of Shalott looking out at the world from her castle.
The painting is known for its use of vibrant colors and its evocative portrayal of the Lady’s reflection in the mirror, which is seen as a symbol of her isolation and longing for love. “The Roses of Heliogabalus” by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
“The Roses of Heliogabalus” was painted by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema in 1888, and depicts the Roman Emperor Heliogabalus drowning guests in a sea of rose petals as part of a decadent feast.
The painting is a powerful critique of gluttony and lust, and is notable for its use of color and its evocative portrayal of Dionysus, the god of wine and excess. “Lady Agnew of Lochnaw” by John Singer Sargent
“Lady Agnew of Lochnaw” is a portrait of Lady Agnew, painted by John Singer Sargent in 1892.
The painting is known for Lady Agnew’s direct gaze and her elegant pose, as well as for Sargent’s skillful use of light and shadow to bring out her beauty. The painting is considered to be one of Sargent’s best portraits of a society lady.
“Flaming June” by Frederic Leighton
“Flaming June” was painted by Frederic Leighton in 1895, and depicts a sleeping woman in a bright orange dress. The painting is known for its vibrant colors and its use of reflection to create a dreamlike atmosphere.
Despite being panned by critics when it was first exhibited, “Flaming June” has become one of the most iconic paintings of the Victorian era. “God Speed” by Edmund Leighton
“God Speed” was painted by Edmund Leighton in 1900, and depicts a knight preparing to ride off to war, as his lady looks on from the castle walls.
The painting is known for its use of chivalry and symbolism, as well as for its powerful depiction of love and farewell. The painting is considered to be one of Leighton’s masterpieces, and is a testament to the enduring appeal of medieval romance.
“Midsummer Eve” by Edward Robert Hughes
“Midsummer Eve” was painted by Edward Robert Hughes in 1908, and depicts a group of fairies in a forest glade. The painting is a wonderful example of the Pre-Raphaelite style, with its attention to detail and use of symbolism.
The painting is considered to be one of Hughes’ best works, and is beloved for its enchanting portrayal of a magical world beneath the trees. In conclusion, these ten famous Victorian paintings represent some of the most enduring and beloved works of art from the era.
They embody the Victorian fascination with the supernatural, their love of romance and realism, and their commitment to symbolism and allegory. Each of these paintings has its own unique story to tell, and together, they offer a window into the fascinating and complex world of Victorian art.
In conclusion, Victorian art has left a significant impact on the world of art that continues to influence artists today. The art of this era depicted a wide range of themes, including the supernatural, romance, realism, and symbolism.
Influenced by artists such as Joshua Reynolds and the emergence of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Victorian paintings captured the imagination of their audience and remain touchstones of the era. By studying the defining characteristics, themes, and famous works of Victorian art, we get to glimpse into the complex and fascinating world of a bygone era.
Victorian art is a testament to the enduring power of creativity in shaping culture and society.