Realism art emerged in the 19th century, in France, as a reaction to the changes in society brought about by the Industrial Revolution. During this period, there were significant social changes that influenced art.
Realism sought to portray ordinary scenes, capture the harsh reality of life, and comment on the social issues plaguing contemporary society. This article aims to guide you through the definition and origins of realism art, its characteristics and impact, and the style and influences behind the movement.
1) Definition and Origins of Realism Art:
Realism art is a style that portrays real-life subjects in an honest and naturalistic way. It emerged during the 19th century in France as a reaction to the traditional high art that was prevalent at the time.
This art form was a response to the changing social structure brought about by the Industrial Revolution and sought to critique the new social order. 1.1) Realism Art definition and origins:
Realism Art is an art style that emerged in France in the mid-19th century.
It was a product of the social changes that the Industrial Revolution brought. The Industrial Revolution had transformed Europe, leading to economic growth and social changes.
The development of newspapers and the mass media allowed artists to work for a wider audience. Realism art portrayed scenes that were realistic and naturalistic, aimed at representing the harsh realities of life during this industrial age.
1.2) Characteristics and Impact of Realism Art:
Realism art is not just a style but a movement with a specific purpose. It sought to represent the world as it was, including both its pleasant and unpleasant aspects.
This included capturing the suffering of the working-class, poverty, and the critique of contemporary society. Realism art had a significant impact on the art world and beyond.
Newspapers and magazines began printing these naturalistic artworks to express daily life, and these prints gained a lot of popularity among the general public. Realism represented the social conditions of the time, giving viewers a direct experience of the world around them.
2) Realism Art Style and Influences:
Even though realism art emerged as a reaction to traditional high art, it was not without its influences. In this section, we will explore the primary influences behind the art style.
2.1) Realism in Painting and Drawing:
Realism in painting and drawing aimed to achieve a truthful representation of reality, an accurate depiction of figures, and natural coloration. This approach to art was somewhat reminiscent of the Renaissance artists, making the details and the shadows of their paintings seem real and three-dimensional.
The communication of the artist with his audience and the connection of the viewer with the subject being portrayed became one of the primary elements of Realist painting and drawing. The Naturalism movement in art, which persisted across Europe in the late 19th century, is also considered to be an influence on Realism painting and drawing.
The Netherlandish painters of the 16th century, with their realistic depictions of everyday life, are other notable influences. 2.2) Illusionistic Realism in Art:
Illusionistic Realism refers to the technique of creating an extremely accurate and lifelike representation of the subject in art.
This technique is prevalent in ancient Egyptian and Greek art, and its influence on realism art is visible in the works of artists like Gustave Courbet. Illusionistic Realism in art aims to create an accurate depiction of light and color, making the viewer experience a sense of mimesis as if the image was a living creature.
Inspired by the ancient Greek art of the 4th century BC, this movement in art aimed to create an accurate impression of the subject and force the viewer to experience a heightened emotional connection with the world around them. Conclusion:
In conclusion, Realism art emerged as a response to the changes in society brought about by the Industrial Revolution.
This art style portrayed reality in an honest and naturalistic way, aimed to represent both pleasant and unpleasant aspects of it and critique contemporary society. Realism art was not without its influences, which ranged from Renaissance artists to ancient Greek and Egyptian art.
Understanding the roots, influences, and philosophical underpinnings of Realism art is essential to fully appreciate this highly acclaimed art movement. 3) Pioneers of Realism:
Realism is a complex art movement with many pioneers who were instrumental in developing the style into what it is today.
This section will explore some of the most notable pioneers of Realism. 3.1) Gustave Courbet:
Gustave Courbet was one of the leading figures of Realism.
He was known for his commitment to representing everyday people, including peasants and laborers. One of his most famous paintings, The Stone Breakers, depicted two laborers crushing rocks on a roadside.
The painting was a direct challenge to the traditional aesthetics of high art, which often depicted only the glamorous and beautiful aspects of life. His painting, Burial at Ornans, which depicted a funeral procession in rural France, was another example of how Courbet sought to challenge traditional concepts of high art.
Courbets commitment to realistic representation was such that he refused to idealize his subjects, even if it made them appear unflattering. This perspective was echoed in his political views, which were left-leaning, and which he depicted in his art.
Courbets work was a forerunner in the development of the Realism movement, and its influence can still be seen in modern art movements today. 3.2) Jean-Franois Millet:
Jean-Franois Millet was another pioneer of Realism and one of the most influential members of the Barbizon school.
Millets works often centered on peasant subjects and rural life, themes that were highly peculiar and unusual in traditional high art. One of his most famous works, The Gleaners, depicted women gathering beans in a field.
Millet had a keen eye for the beauty of the everyday and sought to portray this in his art. His work was often criticized for the political leanings that were evident in it, but he remained steadfast in his commitment to representing the world as it truly was.
3.3) Honor Daumier:
Honor Daumier was a French artist known for his caricatures and political criticism. Although best known for his political cartoons, Daumier also produced a substantial body of art that was naturalistic and highly realistic.
The Third-Class Carriage, his most famous painting, depicted a crowded train carriage filled with poor, working-class people. The painting was a powerful statement on the conditions of the working poor and the struggle for social justice.
Daumiers artistic style was informed by his political beliefs, and his works often contained elements of satire and criticism. The importance of Daumiers work lies in its ability to engage with the social and political issues of the time.
His art served as a powerful tool for commentary and social criticism, bridging the gap between art and politics. 4) Notable Realism Artists and Their Artworks:
Realism has produced some of the most iconic artworks of all time.
This section will explore a few of the most well-known Realism artists and their masterpieces. 4.1) Honor Daumier:
Honor Daumier’s work is known for its political satire, especially in his caricatures of French politicians.
However, his painting The Third-Class Carriage is his most famous work. The painting offers a solemn yet realistic view of the struggles of the lower class.
4.2) Jean-Franois Millet:
Jean-Franois Millet’s subjects focused on rural life, and one of his most famous artworks, The Gleaners, has a very simple composition that depicts three women gathering crops in a field. The painting reflects the dignity of manual labor and heralded the rise of modern art forms.
4.3) Gustave Courbet:
Gustave Courbet believed in depicting life as it was, warts and all. One of his most famous pieces, The Stone Breakers, caused heated debates about its subject matter and style, which was seen as uncouth and scandalous by the painting’s critics.
Another iconic work he created was Burial at Ornans, which portrays a funeral in a rural town, conveying the feeling of heavy sorrow. 4.4) Rosa Bonheur:
Rosa Bonheur’s work often depicts realistic depictions of animals, particularly horses.
One of her most famous pieces, Ploughing in the Nivernais, portrays a team of horses with incredible accuracy. Women in art were rare at the time, but Bonheur is one of the first famous female artists known for her naturalistic and honest style.
4.5) Edward Hopper:
Edward Hopper’s realistic art style frequently depicted the isolation in a modern society. His portrayal of scenes in a city’s architecture was presented in a very naturalistic way, and one of his most popular and well-known paintings is Nighthawks, which features four people sitting together at a diner at night, each wrapped up in his or her own thoughts.
Realism art emerged as a response to the significant social changes that the Industrial Revolution brought. This art movement, with its commitment to truthfully portraying reality, brought with it a new approach to art one that focused on depicting everyday life and presented themes that were previously hidden from traditional high art.
Realism’s influence can still be seen in modern art movements today. The pioneers of this movement, including Gustave Courbet, Jean-Francois Millet, and Honor Daumier, contributed greatly to the development of the style and continue to inspire artists around the world.
5) Realism in Other Art Forms:
Realism, as an art movement, had a profound impact not only on visual art but also on other art forms such as literature, theater, and cinema. This section will explore how Realism influenced these art forms and how it contributed to their development.
5.1) Realism in Literature:
Realism in literature shares the same objective as Realism in visual art to depict objective reality and portray the everyday activities of middle and lower-class individuals. This literary movement was notably influenced by the works of Gustave Courbet and his commitment to portraying truthfully and honestly.
The influence of Realism in literature can be seen in the rise of the neorealist movement. Neorealism, which emerged in the mid-20th century, rejected romanticized and idealized narratives in favor of stories that captured the harsh realities of life.
Neorealist writers depicted the struggle, poverty, and social problems faced by ordinary people, presenting a more accurate portrayal of society. 5.2) Realism in Theater:
Realism in theater aimed to reflect the psychological and social problems of real life.
Playwrights such as August Strindberg, Henrik Ibsen, Maxim Gorky, and Anton Chekhov are considered masters of Realism in theater. Their plays portrayed ordinary speech and behavior, examined social and moral issues, and offered a critical analysis of society.
Strindberg and Ibsen, in particular, challenged traditional theatrical conventions and presented characters with complex personalities and motivations. Gorky and Chekhov explored the lives of the working class and the struggles they faced.
Realism in theater aimed to bridge the gap between the stage and reality, creating an authentic and emotionally powerful experience for the audience. 5.3) Realism in Cinema:
Realism in cinema can be seen in various forms, including neorealism, seamless realism, and aesthetic realism.
Neorealism, which emerged in Italy after World War II, depicted the struggles and social realities of post-war society. Filmmakers such as Roberto Rossellini and Vittorio de Sica focused on the lives of ordinary people, presenting their stories in a raw and unfiltered way.
Seamless realism, as exemplified by director Edward Hopper’s work, aimed to capture the mundane aspects of everyday life with meticulous attention to detail. Hopper’s paintings often depicted empty streets, solitary figures, and quiet spaces, evoking a sense of isolation and introspection.
Aesthetic realism, on the other hand, explores realistic themes and situations while incorporating elements of visual stylization and artistic expression. Filmmakers like Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne are known for their aesthetic realism, combining documentary-like storytelling with an artistic vision.
6) The Legacy of Realism Art:
Realism art has left a lasting legacy on the art world. Its influence can be seen in various art movements and its impact continues to resonate even today.
6.1) Influence and Spread of Realism Art:
Realism had a profound influence on European art, giving rise to movements like Socialist Realism, which sought to capture and celebrate the working class. In the United States, Realism inspired the Ashcan School and American Realism, which depicted urban life and social issues.
Social Realism, another art movement that emerged in the early 20th century, was heavily influenced by Realism and focused on highlighting the struggles of the working class. It aimed to raise awareness of social injustices and inequalities through art.
Realism’s influence extended beyond the art world, infiltrating popular culture, politics, and everyday life. Its focus on depicting reality as it truly was laid the foundation for modern art movements that followed, such as Expressionism and Pop Art.
6.2) Realism as the First Modern Movement:
Realism is often considered the first modern art movement. It challenged the traditional notion of art as something idealized and elevated, instead embracing the reality of the world.
Realism’s effort to present a truthful representation of life marked a rebellious departure from the established norms of the art world. By breaking away from the romanticized and idealized depictions of the past, Realism paved the way for future art movements to experiment, challenge, and push boundaries.
Realism art’s legacy lies in its ability to influence and inspire not only artists but also society as a whole. Conclusion:
Realism art transcended the confines of the visual arts and had a profound influence on literature, theater, and cinema.
Realism in these art forms aimed to depict the truthfulness of everyday life, the struggles of the working class, and the social and psychological problems of society. Realism’s impact can still be felt today, as it shaped the development of subsequent art movements and left a lasting legacy on the artistic and cultural landscape.
In conclusion, Realism art, with its commitment to portraying reality truthfully and honestly, had a profound impact on various art forms including literature, theater, and cinema. It challenged traditional aesthetics, highlighting the struggles of the working class and critiquing societal issues.
The pioneers of Realism, such as Gustave Courbet, Jean-Francois Millet, and Honor Daumier, contributed greatly to its development. Their works and the subsequent movements they influenced left a lasting legacy on the art world, breaking away from idealized depictions and paving the way for modern art.
The importance of Realism lies in its ability to bridge the gap between art and reality, making a powerful social and political commentary. It serves as a reminder to embrace the truthfulness of life and continue to challenge established norms.